Evidence and research


Here you will find resources to support you to:

  • find resources to help develop your own understanding of the literature around social inequality
  • take an informed and appropriate evidence-based approach to practice, teaching and research activity
  • carry out inclusive, culturally appropriate and anti-racist research
  • engage in research activity, with particular support for those from diverse backgrounds
  • understand the landscape of academia and research in terms of existing issues relating to diversity and inclusion


Academic resources on social inequality




Journal articles

Health services, workforce and curriculum

  • Brewer, KM and McCann, CM. (2020). Perceptions of cultural competence in the New Zealand speech-language therapy profession. Speech, Language and Hearing, DOI: 10.1080/2050571X.2020.1808345
  • Brottman, M. R., Char, D. M., Hattori, R. A., Heeb, R. & Taff, S, D. (2020). Toward Cultural Competency in Health Care: A Scoping Review of the Diversity and Inclusion Education Literature. Academic Medicine, 95 (5), 803-813. doi:10.1097/ACM.0000000000002995
  • Clark, EL, Easton, C. & Verdon, S. (2020). The impact of linguistic bias upon speech-language pathologists’ attitudes towards non-standard dialects of English. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, DOI: 10.1080/02699206.2020.1803405.
  • Hewat, S., Walters, J., Lee, M. (2020) The Impact of an Online Cultural Simulation Activity on the Development of Speech Pathology Students’ Cultural Empathy: A Pilot Study. International Journal of Practice-based Learning in Health and Social Care, 8 (2), 16-28.
  • Mahendra, N. (2019) Integrating Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Issues Into the Multicultural Curriculum in Speech-Language Pathology: Instructional Strategies and Learner Perceptions. Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups, 4(2), pp.384-394.
  • Piacentini, T., O’Donnell, C., Phipps, A., Jackson, I. & Stack, N. (2018). Moving beyond the ‘language problem’: developing an understanding of the intersections of health, language and immigration status in interpreter-mediated health encounters. Language and Intercultural Communication, 19 (3), 256-271.
  • Staley, B., Hickey, E.,  Rule, D., Barrett, H., Salter, C., Gibson, R. & Rochus, D. (2020). Speech-language pathology and ethical practice in global contexts. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, DOI: 10.1080/17549507.2020.1743358.
  • Subramanian, A. (2020). Importance of Cultural Competence in Supervisory Relationships. ASHA Perspectives, 5 (2), 489-491
  • Wilbur, K., Snyder, C., Essary, A. C., Reddy, S., Will, K. K. & Saxon, M. (2020) Developing Workforce Diversity in the Health Professions: A Social Justice Perspective. Health Professions Education, 6 (2), 222-229.

Working with diverse populations

Inclusive research methodology

  • Jones, K. C. (2020) Bridging the Research Gap: A Toolkit on Inclusive Research and Development Practices. Chicago Council on Global Affairs. Online. Available at: https://www.jstor.org/stable/resrep24850 <Accessed 17 Dec 2020>
  • Levinson, M. P (2020). The Quest for Genuinely Participatory and Inclusive Research Approaches: Exploring and Expressing Experience Through Cultural Animation and Transcription Poetry. International review of Qualitative Research, 13 (2), https://doi.org/10.1177/1940844720934372.
  • Portz, K. J. & Burns, A. (2020). Utilizing Mixed Methodology to Increase Cultural Competency in Research with Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Individuals. Transgender Health, 5 (1), 69-73. doi:10.1089/trgh.2019.0057
  • Roche, P., Shimmin, C., Hickes, S., Khan, M., Sherzoi, O., Wicklund, E., Lavoie, J., Hardie, S., Wittmeier, K. and Sibley, K. (2020). Valuing All Voices: refining a trauma-informed, intersectional and critical reflexive framework for patient engagement in health research using a qualitative descriptive approach. Research Involvement and Engagement, 6(1).
  • Witham, M. D., Anderson, e., Carroll, C, Dark, P. M., Down, K. et al (2020). Developing a roadmap to improve trial delivery for under-served groups: results from a UK multi-stakeholder process. Trials, 21 (694). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04613-7

Articles from the journal Languages, Society & Policy, stemming from the ‘Multilingualism: Empowering individuals, transforming societies’ (MEITS) project may be of interest to SLTs. Find the open-access journal here.

Inclusive Research Methods

Researchers, as well as clinicians, need to be inclusive in their practice. When selecting your approach to research, you should consider aspects of diversity, inclusion and anti-racism.

To support you with this, we have picked out a few key resources that are available through the RCSLT subscription to Sage Research Methods.

To access these resources, please visit this page to the access Sage Research Methods package. Once you have logged in through the portal, come back to this page and click on the titles below (or, you can search for them on the Sage Research Methods).

Gordon Crawford, Lena J. Kruckenberg, Nicholas Loubere, and Rosemary Morgan 2017. Understanding Global Development Research: Fieldwork Issues, Experiences and Reflections. 55 City Road, London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Joseph Trimble, and Celia Fisher 2006. The Handbook of Ethical Research with Ethnocultural Populations & Communities. : SAGE Publications, Inc.

McLaughlin, H. 2012. Research and Anti-Oppressive Practice. In: Understanding Social Work Research, 2nd ed. London: SAGE Publications Ltd pp. 73-94.

Norman Denzin, Yvonna Lincoln, and Linda Smith 2008. Handbook of Critical and Indigenous Methodologies. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Thomas, V. 2009. Critical Race Theory: Ethics and Dimensions of Diversity in Research. In: The Handbook of Social Research Ethics, Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. pp. 54-68.

Yasmin Gunaratnam 2003. Researching Race and Ethnicity. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Supporting researchers from diverse backgrounds

There is a lack of diversity in the research and academic landscape as well as the clinical landscape. Here are some resources to support the success of aspiring and current researchers from diverse backgrounds.

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